Word families

Shakespeare often refers to the heart. But he also uses this word to help create other words, such as unheart, heart-sore, and heartless. How many such derived words are there, and how are they used? Type HEART into the search-box and you will see.

We use the term word-family to identify the set of words that contain the same basic element. They will be part of a compound word (as in heart-sore), accompanied by a prefix (as in unheart) or a suffix (as in heartless), or used in different ways (e.g. as a noun and a verb). In this section we list all the words in the canon (in the modern English version) that have family resemblances so you can see which words Shakespeare exploited in this way, and which he did not. Words that are not included (such as the and Horatio) are described on the further information page here.

When there are several family members, we group them into themes, showing the directions in which Shakespeare used a word. Where these occur, they are listed under the main heading. The names of the themes, taken along with their family members, we hope are self-explanatory, but more illustration can be found on the further information page here.
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CABBAGE
CABILERO
CABIN
CABLE
CACKLE
CACODEMON
CADDIS
CLOTHING
CADENCE
CADUCEUS
CAGE
ACTION
CAIN-COLOURED
CAITIFF
CAKE
TYPE
CALAMITY
CALCULATE
CALENDAR
CALF
PART OF BODY
TYPE
CALIVER
CALKIN
CALL
NOT
CALLET
CALM
CALUMNIATE
CALVE
CAMBRIC
CAMEL
CAMLET
CAMOMILE
CAMP
ACTION
CANAKIN
CANARY [dance]
CANARY [drink]
CANCEL
CANCER
CANDIDATUS
CANDIED
NOT
CANDLE
CONTAINER
PEOPLE
TYPE
CANKER
EMOTION
PLANT
CANNIBAL
CANNON
OBJECT
PEOPLE
TYPE
CANON
CANONIZE
CANOPY
CANSTICK
CANTHERIZING
CANTLE
CANTON
CANVAS
PEOPLE
CANZONET
CAP
ACTION
APPEARANCE
PEOPLE
TYPE
CAPABLE
NOT
CAPARISON
CAPE [clothing]
CAPE [land]
CAPER
CAPITAL
CAPITOL
CAPITULATE
CAPOCCHIA
CAPON
CAPRICCIO
CAPRICIOUS
CAPTAIN
RANK
CAPTIOUS
CAPTIVE
CAR
CARAT
CARAWAY
CARBONADO
CARBUNCLE
CARCANET
CARCASS
CARD [action]
PEOPLE
CARD [object]
PEOPLE
CARDECUE
CARDINAL
TYPE
CARDINALLY
CARE
INTENSITY
STATE
NOT
CAREER
CARL
CARMAN
CARNAL
CARNATION
CAROL
CAROUSE
CARP [fish]
CARP [quarrel]
PEOPLE
CARPENTER
CARPET
PEOPLE
CARRACK
CARRIAGE
CARRION
CARRY
PEOPLE
VEHICLE
NOT
CART
PEOPLE
CARVE
PEOPLE
CASE
TYPE
NOT
CASEMENT
CASH
CASK
CASQUE
CASSOCK
CAST
ACTION
OBJECT
PEOPLE
STATE
CASTIGATE
CASTLE
CASUAL
CASUALTY
CAT
TYPE
CATALOGUE
CATAPLASM
CATARACT
CATARRH
CATASTROPHE
CATCH
ACTION
OBJECT
PEOPLE
NOT
CATE
CATECHISM
CATER
PEOPLE
CATERPILLAR
CATERWAULING
CATHEDRAL
CATLIKE
CATLING
CATTLE
CAUDLE
CAUGHT
CAULDRON
CAULKED
CAUSE
PEOPLE
TYPE
NOT
CAUTEL
CAUTION
CAVALIER
CAVE
ACTION
PEOPLE
CAVERN
CAVETO
CAVIARY
CAVIL
CAW
CEASE
DEATH
PEOPLE
TIME
NOT
CEDAR
PART
CELEBRATE
CELERITY
CELESTIAL
CELL
CELLAR
CEMENT
CENSER
CENSURE
PEOPLE
CENTAUR
CENTRE
CENTURION
CENTURY
CERE
CLOTHING
CERECLOTH
CEREMENTS
CEREMONY
CERTAIN
NOT
CERTIFY
CESS
CICATRICE
CINDER
CINQUE
APPEARANCE
DANCE
CIPHER
OPPOSITE
CIRCLE
ACTION
TYPE
CIRCUIT
CIRCUMCISED
CIRCUMFERENCE
CIRCUMMURED
CIRCUMSCRIBE
CIRCUMSPECT
CIRCUMSTANCE
CIRCUMVENT
CISTERN
CITADEL
CITE
CITIZEN
CITTERN
CITY
CIVET
CIVIL
NOT
CLACK
CLAD
STATE
CLAIM
EXTRA
SPEECH
NOT
CLAMBER
CLAMOUR
CLANG
INTENSITY
CLAP
ACTION
OBJECT
PEOPLE
CLARET
CLASP
NOT
CLATTER
CLAUSE
CLAW
ACTION
CLAY
STATE
CLEAN
STATE
NOT
CLEAR
STATE
CLEAVE
STRONG
CLEF
CLEMENCY
CLEPE
CLERESTORY
CLERGY
CLERK
CLEW
NOT
CLIENT
CLIFF
CLIMATE
CLIMB
PEOPLE
CLIME
CLING
CLINK
CLINQUANT
CLIP
ACTION
APPEARANCE
PEOPLE
CLOAK
CONTAINER
CLOCK
PEOPLE
CLOD
PEOPLE
CLOG
OBJECT
NOT
CLOISTER
PEOPLE
CLOSE
ACTION
OBJECT
PLACE
STATE
CLOSET
ACTION
CLOTH
TYPE
CLOTHES
PEOPLE
TYPE
CLOTPOLL
CLOUD
ACTION
STATE
CLOUT
TYPE
CLOVEN
CLOVER
CLOVES
CLOWN
CLOY
INTENSITY
NOT
CLUB
CLUCK
CLUNG
CLUSTER
CLUTCH
CLYSTER-PIPE
COACH
PEOPLE
COACTIVE
COAGULATE
COAL
COLOUR
TYPE
COARSE
COAST
COAT
APPEARANCE
PEOPLE
TYPE
COBBLE
PEOPLE
COBLOAF
COBWEB
COCK [bird]
EMOTION
NOISE
OBJECT
STATE
TIME
TYPE
COCK [God]
COCKATRICE
COCKLE [boat]
COCKLE [plant]
COCKLE [shape]
OBJECT
COCKNEY
COCKSHUT
COD
TYPE
CODDING
CODPIECE
CO-EQUAL
COFFER
PART
COFFIN
FOOD
COG
COGITATION
COGNITION
COGNIZANCE
COHERE
COHORT
COIF
COIGN
COIL
COIN
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
COISTREL
CO-JOIN
COLD
EMOTION
STATE
COLIC
COLIER
COLLAR
COLLATERAL
COLLEAGUED
COLLECT
PAST
COLLEGE
COLLIED
COLLOP
COLLUSION
COLOQUINTIDA
COLOSSUS
COLOUR
AMOUNT
APPEARANCE
OBJECT
TYPE
NOT
COLT
NOT
COLUMBINE
CO-MATE
COMB [hair]
NOT
COMB [honey]
COMBAT
PEOPLE
COMBINE
COMBUSTION
COME
ACTION
PEOPLE
TIME
NOT
COMEDDLED
COMEDY
COMELY
NOT
COMET
COMFECT
PEOPLE
TYPE
COMFIT
COMFORT
EXTRA
PEOPLE
NOT
COMIC
TYPE
COMMA
COMMAND
PEOPLE
COMMENCE
COMMEND
NOT
COMMENT
COMMERCE
COMMISERATION
COMMISSION
PEOPLE
COMMIT
COMMIX
COMMODIOUS
COMMODITY
COMMON
PEOPLE
STATE
COMMOTION
COMMUNE
NOT
COMMUTUAL
COMPACT
INTENSITY
COMPANY
ACTION
PEOPLE
NOT
COMPARE
APPEARANCE
INTENSITY
COMPARTNER
COMPASS
STATE
COMPASSION
COMPASSIONATE
COMPEER
COMPEL
COMPENSATION
COMPETENCE
COMPETITOR
COMPILE
COMPLAIN
PEOPLE
COMPLEMENT
COMPLETE
COMPLEXION
TYPE
COMPLICE
COMPLIMENT
COMPLOT
COMPLY
COMPOSE
BAD
COMPOST
COMPOUND
STATE
COMPREHEND
NOT
COMPRISE
COMPROMISE
COMPT
COMPULSION
COMPUNCTIOUS
COMPUTATION
COMPUTENT
COMRADE
CON
CONCAVE
CONCEAL
STATE
CONCEIT
TYPE
NOT
CONCEIVE
STATE
TIME
NOT
CONCERN
CONCLAVE
CONCLUDE
BAD
CONCORD
CONCUPISCIBLE
PEOPLE
CONCUR
CONDEMN
CONDESCEND
CONDIGN
CONDITION
INTENSITY
CONDOLE
CONDUCE
CONDUCT
ACTION
PEOPLE
CONDUIT
CONFECTION
CONFEDERATE
CONFER
CONFESS
PEOPLE
CONFIDENCE
CONFINE
PEOPLE
NOT
CONFIRM
STATE
NOT
CONFISCATE
CONFIX
CONFLICT
CONFLUENCE
CONFLUX
CONFORM
CONFOUND
CONFRONT
CONFUSED
CONFUTE
CONGEAL
CONGEE
CONGER
CONGEST
CONGRATULATE
CONGREE
CONGREET
CONGREGATE
CONGRUE
CONJECTURE
CONJOIN
CONJURE
PEOPLE
CONNIVE
CONQUER
PEOPLE
NOT
CONSANGUINITY
CONSCIENCE
TYPE
CONSECRATE
CONSENT
CONSEQUENCE
CONSERVE
CONSIDER
NOT
CONSIGN
CONSIST
CONSOLATE
NOT
CONSONANCY
CONSONANT
CONSORT
CONSPECTUITY
CONSPIRE
PEOPLE
CONSTABLE
CONSTANCY
STATE
NOT
CONSTELLATION
CONSTER
NOT
CONSTITUTION
CONSTRAIN
ACTION
NOT
CONSTRINGE
CONSTRUE
NOT
CONSUL
RANK
CONSULT
CONSUME
PART OF BODY
PEOPLE
CONSUMMATE
CONTAGION
CONTAIN
EVENT
CONTAMINATE
CONTEMN
NOT
CONTEMPLATE
INTENSITY
CONTEMPT
STATUS
CONTEND
SPEECH
CONTENT
GOOD
BAD
NOT
CONTENTION
CONTEST
CONTINENCE
NOT
CONTINENT [land]
CONTINUE
PEOPLE
TIME
NOT
CONTRACT
TYPE
CONTRADICT
CONTRARY
CONTRIBUTION
CONTRITE
CONTRIVE
PEOPLE
CONTROL
PEOPLE
NOT
CONTROVERSY
CONTUMELY
CONTUSION
CONVENIENCE
NOT
CONVENT
CONVERSE
CONVERT
PEOPLE
CONVEY
PEOPLE
CONVICT
CONVINCE
CONVIVE
CONVOCATION
CONVOY
CONVULSION
CONY
ACTION
COOK
COOL
INTENSITY
COOP
CO-PARTNER
COPATAIN
COPE
FUNCTION
COPIOUS
COPPED
COPPER
COPPICE
COPSE
COPULATION
COPY
OBJECT
CORAL
CORANTO
CORD
CORDIAL
CORE
CORK
CORMORANT
CORN
CORNER
OBJECT
PLACE
CORNET
CORNFIELD
CORNS
CORNUTO
COROLLARY
CORONAL
SIZE
CORONATION
CORONET
CORPORAL [physical]
NOT
CORPORAL [rank]
CORPORATE
NOT
CORPSE
STATE
CORPULENT
CORRECT
GODS
PEOPLE
NOT
CORRESPOND
CORRIGIBLE
CORRIVAL
CORROBORATE
CORROSIVE
CORRUPT
PEOPLE
CORSE
CORSLET
COST
COSTARD
PEOPLE
COSTUME
CO-SUPREME
COTE [action]
SUPPORT
COTE [place]
TYPE
COT-QUEAN
COTTAGE
COUCH
ACTION
COUGH
COULTER
COUNCIL
OBJECT
PEOPLE
COUNSEL
PEOPLE
SPEECH
COUNT [numbers]
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
NOT
COUNT [person]
COUNTENANCE
COUNTER [object]
GAME
PEOPLE
COUNTER [opposite]
BALANCE
OBJECT
OPPOSITE
PRETENCE
COUNTESS
COUNTLESS
COUNTRY
PEOPLE
COUNTY
COUPLE
NOT
COURAGE
ACTION
NOT
COURIER
COURSE
ACTION
ANIMAL
EVENT
OBJECT
COURT
EMOTION
OBJECT
PEOPLE
PLACE
SMELL
WRITING
COURTESY
NOT
COUSIN
TYPE
COVENANT
COVENT
COVER
OBJECT
SECRET
STATE
NOT
COVET
EMOTION
COW [animal]
PART
COW [outdare]
COWARD
COWER
COWL
OBJECT
COWSLIP
COXCOMB
COY
COZEN
PEOPLE
COZIER
CRAB [animal]
CRAB [apple]
PLANT
STATE
CRACK
PEOPLE
CRADLE
CLOTHING
PEOPLE
CRAFT
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
SPEECH
STATE
TYPE
CRAGGY
CRAM
STATE
CRAMP
CRANK
CRANNY
CRANTS
CRASH
CRASING
CRAVE
PEOPLE
CRAWL
CRAZE
STATE
CREAK
CREAM
APPEARANCE
CREATE
ACTION
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
CREATURE
TYPE
CREDIT
FUNCTION
NOT
CREED
INTENSITY
NOT
CREEK
CREEP
CRESCENT
CRESCIVE
CRESSET
CREST
ACTION
STATE
NOT
CREVICE
CREW
CRIB
CRICKET
TYPE
CRIER
CRIME
NOT
CRIMSON
APPEARANCE
CRINGE
CRIPPLE
CRISP
CRITIC
CROAK
CROCODILE
CRONE
CROOK
APPEARANCE
PART OF BODY
CROP
ANIMAL
NOT
CROSS
APPEARANCE
PLACE
OBJECT
STATE
NOT
CROTCHET
CROUCH
CROW [bird]
ACTION
OBJECT
PEOPLE
TYPE
CROW [object]
CROWD
CROWFLOWER
CROWN [monarch]
EVENT
OBJECT
PEOPLE
NOT
CROWN [money]
AMOUNT
CRUDY
CRUEL
PART OF BODY
TYPE
CRUMB
CRUMBLE
CRUPPER
CRUSADO
CRUSH
CRUST
CRUTCH
CRY
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
CRYSTAL
APPEARANCE
OBJECT
CUB
CUBICULO
CUBIT
CUCKOLD
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
NOT
CUCKOO
PLANT
CUDGEL
CUE
CUFF
CUISH
CULL
CULLION
CULLISON
CULPABLE
CULVERIN
CUMBER
CUNNING
CUP
PEOPLE
CUPBOARD
TYPE
CUR
CURATE
CURB
NOT
CURD
CURE
PEOPLE
NOT
CURFEW
CURIOUS
APPEARANCE
CURL
PART OF BODY
NOT
CURRANT
CURRENT
NOT
CURRIER
ACTION
CURRISH
CURRY
CURSE
NOT
CURSITORY
CURST
CURTAIL
CURTAIN
CURTAL
CURTLE-AXE
CURTSY
CURVET
CUSHION
CUSTARD
PART
CUSTODY
CUSTOM
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
CUSTREL
CUT
OBJECT
PEOPLE
CUTLER
CUTPURSE
CUTTLE
CYGNET
CYMBAL
CYNIC
CYPRESS
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