Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Entry conventions

Within definitions

The preposition convention
Where the modern use of a word requires a different following preposition from the one given in the quotation, the modern preposition is given in parentheses.

adjunct (adj.) attendant [upon], inevitable result [of] KJ III.iii.57 [Hubert to King John, of obeying him] Though that my death were adjunct to my act ... I would do it

In other words: the Shakespearian usage is ‘adjunct to’, but modern usage requires attendant upon rather than attendant to and inevitable result of rather than inevitable result to.

This convention is also used in cases where the selected quotation does not actually contain a preposition, but the definition requires one to make the gloss work.

reason (v.) 9 argue rationally [about], debate the pros and cons [of] KL II.iv.259 [Lear to Regan] reason not the need!; Cym IV.ii.14; Ham II.ii.264; JC V.i.95; KL I.ii.105

Here he parenthesis also signals that some the other examples listed do not need the preposition to make the gloss work. The Hamlet quotation, for example, is:

Ham II.ii.264 [Hamlet to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern] I cannot reason.

Within contexts

The ‘alone’ convention
In specifying the context of a quotation, we need to indicate when a character is the only person on stage.

Tem V.i.51 [Prospero alone] this rough magic / I here abjure 

The ‘himself/herself’ convention

In specifying the context of a quotation, we need to indicate when a character is speaking to himself/herself while not being the only person on stage.

Oth V.ii.101 [Othello to himself] th'affrighted globe / Should yawn at alteration

Within quotations

Capitalization convention
In quotations we retain the capital-letters and punctuation of the quotation as it appears in the selected text, including line-initial capitals in poetry, but we do not include sentence-ending marks unless they are crucial for meaning (as in the case of some question-marks and exclamation marks).

Omitted text conventions
Ellipsis dots (...) show that text has been omitted; items in square brackets are grammatical words which clarify the sense and enable us to keep the quotation as short as possible.

catch (v.) 3 catch up with, overtake
Tem V.i.316 [Prospero to Alonso] [I'll] promise you ... sail so expeditious, that shall catch / Your royal fleet far off

After quotations

The additional reference convention
When a series of additional references follows the chief quotation, the text references are in alphabetical order, and we conflate scenes and lines from the same play.

fancy (n.) love, amorousness, infatuation TNK V.iv.118 [Theseus to Palamon, of Emilia] you first saw her, and / Even then proclaimed your fancy; Luc 200; MA III.ii.35; MND I.i.155; TC IV.iv.24; TNK IV.ii.52

fardel (n.) burden, load, bundle WT IV.iv.750 [Autolycus to Shepherd] The fardel there, what's i'th' fardel?; Ham III.i.76; WT IV.iv.703, 713, V.ii.3, 114

In other words: in the second example, the Winter’s Tale references are to IV.iv.703, IV.iv.713, V.ii.3, and V.ii.114.         


The F/Q convention
Reference to a word in the First Folio is indicated by the abbreviation F; to later Folios, by the use of an additional number: F2, F3, etc.  Reference to unspecified Quarto texts is indicated by the abbreviation Q, or QQ if more than one; to a specific Quarto, by a numeral, Q1, Q2, etc. The variant form then follows.

denotement (n.) indication, sign, clue  Oth III.iii.122 [Othello to Iago, of Iago's pauses] in a man that's just, / They're close denotements ... / That passion cannot rule [Q1; F dilations] In other words: the item in the quotation is from the Q1 text of Othello; the First Folio equivalent is dilations.


The ‘first/second instance’ convention

When two uses of the same headword need to be distinguished in a single quotation, these are identifed using the convention ‘first instance’ ... ‘second instance’

fine (n.) 2 ending, termination  KJ V.iv.38 [Melun to Pembroke, Salisbury, and Bigot, of their executions] Paying the fine of rated treachery / Even with a treacherous fine of all your lives [second instance; first instance, sense 3]

In other words: it is the second instance of fine in the quotation which has the meaning of ‘ending’; the first instance has a different sense, which can be found at sense 3.


The ‘pun’ convention
When a word motivates a pun in a later line, or a pun refers back to a word in a previous line, the reference is given in parentheses after the quotation.

sconce (n.) 2 shelter, screen, guard CE II.ii.37 [Dromio of Syracuse to Antipholus of Syracuse] An you use these blows long I must get a sconce for my head [pun: 34, sense 1]

In other words: in line 34, the word sconce is used in sense 1 {i.e. in the sense of ‘head’].

The ‘also’ convention

When a quotation is followed by also and another sense number, we mean that the sense referred to is definitely relevant in this context.

augury (n.) 2 discernment, prescience, prophetic skill TG IV.iv.65 [Proteus to disguised Julia] if my augury deceive me not [also: sense 1]


In other words: refer to augury sense 1, where the meaning of ‘omens, premonition, divining the future’ must also be noted for this quotation.

The ‘or’ convention

When a quotation is followed by or and another sense number, we mean that the sense referred to is an alternative reading for the word in this context.

tainted (adj.) 3 disgraced, discredited, dishonoured H8 IV.ii.14 [Griffith to Katherine, of Wolsey] a man sorely tainted [or: sense 2]

In other words: refer to tainted sense 2, where the sense given there (‘corrupted, dishonourable, depraved’) is preferred by some editors.

The ‘i.e.’ convention

When a quotation is followed by i.e., the following words act as a paraphrase of all or part of the quotation, or add some additional information to make sense of the quotation.

bedfellow (n.) intimate companion TNK V.iii.44 [Emilia to herself, of Arcite] mercy and manly courage / Are bedfellows in his visage [i.e. are seen together in his face]


bear (v.) 8 bring forth, produce, yield AC IV.vi.7 [Caesar to all] the three-nooked world / Shall bear the olive freely [i.e. the olive-branch of peace]



 
 

 Abbreviations, symbols, and conventions

 Symbols and abbreviations

adj adjective
adv adverb
conj conjunction
det determiner
F Folio (see below)
f feminine [in French, Latin, Spanish, and Italian grammar]
ff [in line references] and following lines
int interjection
m masculine [in French, Latin, Spanish, and Italian grammar]
n noun
nt. neuter [in Latin grammar]
part particle
prep preposition
pron pronunciation
Q Quarto (see below)
QQ Quartos
v verb
[in panels] becomes, develops into
>>  see, see also
? [in panels] unclear meaning or usage
= equivalent term or meaning
/ Marks a shared word in a headword: call on / upon; Marks a line break in a quotation: this rough magic / I here abjure
... Marks omitted words in a quotation: we'll ... take upon's the mystery of things
( ) Contain grammatical information
[ ] Contain stylistic and explanatory matter in definitions
  Contain alternative prepositions in definitions (see below)
  Contain contextual matter before a quotation (see below)
  Contain clarifying grammatical words within a quotation (see below)
  Contain textual alternatives following a quotation (see below)
  Contain clarificatory matter following a quotation (see below)


Pronunciation symbols used

Vowels Consonants
Symbol As in Symbol As in
a hat b buy
ah calm ch chop
aw saw d day
ay say f fee
ee see g go
er sir h hay
i hit j joy
iy mine k key
oo do l lay
oy boy m me
u put n no
uh hut p pay
    r ray
    s so
    sh shoe
    t too
    th (voiceless) thin
    th (voiced) this
    v vow
    w we
    y you
    z zoo
    zh illusion

‘  indicates a following stressed syllable

Text abbreviations

AC

Antony and Cleopatra

AW

All’s Well That Ends Well

AYL

As You Like It

CE

The Comedy of Errors

Cor

Coriolanus

Cym

Cymbeline

E3

King Edward III

Ham

Hamlet

1H4

Henry IV Part 1

2H4

Henry IV Part 2

H5

Henry V

1H6

Henry VI Part 1

2H6

Henry VI Part 2

3H6

Henry VI Part 3

H8

Henry VIII

JC

Julius Caesar

KJ

King John

KL

King Lear

LLL

Love’s Labour’s Lost

LC

A Lover’s Complaint

Luc

The Rape of Lucrece

MA

Much Ado About Nothing

Mac

Macbeth

MM

Measure for Measure

MND

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

MV

The Merchant of Venice

MW

The Merry Wives of Windsor

Oth

Othello

PP

The Passionate Pilgrim

Per

Pericles

Phoen

The Phoenix and Turtle

R2

Richard II

R3

Richard III

RJ

Romeo and Juliet

Sonn

Sonnets

Tem

The Tempest

Tim

Timon of Athens

Tit

Titus Andronicus

TC

Troilus and Cressida

TN

Twelfth Night

TG

The Two Gentlemen of Verona

TNK

The Two Noble Kinsmen

TS

The Taming of the Shrew

Ven

Venus and Adonis

WT

The Winter’s Tale