Word families

Shakespeare often refers to the heart. But he also uses this word to help create other words, such as unheart, heart-sore, and heartless. How many such derived words are there, and how are they used? Type HEART into the search-box and you will see.

We use the term word-family to identify the set of words that contain the same basic element. They will be part of a compound word (as in heart-sore), accompanied by a prefix (as in unheart) or a suffix (as in heartless), or used in different ways (e.g. as a noun and a verb). In this section we list all the words in the canon (in the modern English version) that have family resemblances so you can see which words Shakespeare exploited in this way, and which he did not. Words that are not included (such as the and Horatio) are described on the further information page here.

When there are several family members, we group them into themes, showing the directions in which Shakespeare used a word. Where these occur, they are listed under the main heading. The names of the themes, taken along with their family members, we hope are self-explanatory, but more illustration can be found on the further information page here.
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SABBATH
SABLE
SACK [cloth]
SACK [drink]
SACK [pillage]
ACTION
TIME
SACKBUT
SACRED
ACTION
PEOPLE
SAD
PART OF BODY
STATE
SADDLE
OBJECT
PEOPLE
SAFE
ACTION
EVENT
STATE
NOT
SAFFRON
SAG
SAGE
SAGITTARY
SAIL
PEOPLE
STATE
TYPE
SAINT
ACTION
STATE
SAKE
SALAD
SALAMANDER
SALARY
SALE
SALLET [helmet]
SALLOW
SALLY
SALMON
SALT
ACTION
OBJECT
STATE
SALTPETRE
SALUTATION
EXTRA
NOT
SALVATION
SALVE
SALVO
SAME
SAMPIRE
SAMPLE
EMBROIDERY
SANCTITY
NOT
SAND
COLOUR
DISEASE
STATE
SANDAL
SANDY
SANGUINE
SANITY
NOT
SANS
SAP
STATE
NOT
SAPIENT
SAPLESS
SAPLING
SAPPHIRE
SAPPY
SARACENS
SARCANET
SATCHEL
SATE
SATIATE
NOT
SATIN
SATIRE
SATISFACTION
NOT
SATURDAY
SATYR
SAUCE
PEOPLE
SAUCER
SAVAGE
PEOPLE
STATE
SAVE
SAVIOUR
SAVORY
SAVOUR
PLANT
STATE
NOT
SAW [saying]
SAW [word]
PEOPLE
PLACE
SAY
SPEECH
TIME
NOT
SBLOOD
SCAB
SCABBARD
SCAFFOLD
SCALD [hot]
SCALD [vile]
SCALE [climb]
OBJECT
NOT
SCALE [skin]
APPEARANCE
SCALE [weigh]
SCALP
SCALY
SCAMBLE
SCAMEL
SCAN
NOT
SCANDAL
SCANT
SCAR
NOT
SCARCE
PART OF BODY
STATE
SCARE
OBJECT
SCARF
SCARLET
SCATH
SCATHE
SCATTER
PEOPLE
SCAULD
SCENE
SCENT
ACTION
BAD
SCEPTRE
SCHEDULE
ACTION
SCHOLAR
RELATIONSHIP
SCHOOL
ACTION
PEOPLE
TIME
TYPE
NOT
SCIATICA
SCIENCE
SCIMITAR
SCION
SCISSOR
NOT
SCOFF
PEOPLE
SCOLD
INTENSITY
SCONCE
ACTION
SCOPE
SCORCH
NOT
SCORE
SCORN
SCORPION
SCOT [nation]
PEOPLE
SCOT [pay]
SCOTCH
SCOUNDREL
SCOUR
SCOURGE
SCOUT [mock]
SCOUT [person]
SCOWL
SCRAP
SCRAPE
SCRATCH
NOT
SCRAWL
SCREAM
SCREECH
BIRD
SCREEN
STATE
SCREW
SCRIBBLE
SCRIBE
ACTION
PEOPLE
WRITING
SCRIMER
SCRIP [bag]
SCRIP [text]
SCRIPPAGE
SCRIPTURE
SCRIVENER
SCROLL
ACTION
SCROYLE
SCRUBBED
SCRUPLE
SCUD
SCUFFLE
SCULLION
SCUM
SCURRIL
SCURVY
INTENSITY
SCUSE
SCUT
SCUTCHEON
SCYTHE
ANIMAL
SEA
ACTION
APPEARANCE
BEINGS
CLOTHING
DISEASE
EMOTION
FUEL
PEOPLE
PLACE
STATE
WEATHER
SEAL
ACTION
OBJECT
STATE
NOT
SEAM [grease]
STATE
SEAM [line]
NOT
SEAMAN
SEAMY
SEAR [wither]
ACTION
SEAR [wrap]
SEARCH
ACTION
PEOPLE
NOT
SEA-SICK
SEASIDE
SEASON
STATE
TIME
NOT
SEAT
STATE
NOT
SECOND
NOT
SECRET
NOT
SECRETARY
SECT
SECUNDO
SECURE
SEDGE
SEDITION
SEDUCE
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
SEE
ACTION
GOD
INTENSITY
STATE
TIME
NOT
SEED
TYPE
MALAPROPISM
SEEK
NOT
SEEL
SEEM
APPEARANCE
BAD
GOOD
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
SEETHE
SEGREGATION
SEIGNIORY
SEISED
SEIZE
SELD
SELDOM
APPEARANCE
SELECT
SELF
ACTION
APPEARANCE
BIRTH
DEATH
EMOTION
MIND
SPEECH
STATE
SELL
INTENSITY
OBJECT
PEOPLE
SEMBLANCE
SEMICIRCLE
SEMPSTER
SENATE
SEND
PEOPLE
SENIOR
SENNET
SENNIGHT
SENSE
STATE
NOT
SENTENCE [language]
SENTENCE [law]
NOT
SENTINEL
SENTRY
SEPARATE
NOT
SEPTENTRION
SEPULCHRE
SEQUEL
SEQUENCE
CONSEQUENCE
SUBSEQUENCE
SEQUESTER
SEQUESTRATION
SERE
SERGE
SERGEANT
SERIOUS
SERMON
SERPENT
SERPIGO
SERVE
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
RELATIONSHIP
STATE
NOT
SESSION
SET
ACTION
PEOPLE
STATE
TIME
SETTLE
STATE
NOT
SEVEN
HIGHER
STATE
TIME
SEVER
INTENSITY
NOT
SEVERAL
SEVERE
SEW
SEWER [drain]
SEX
NOT
SEXTON
SFOOT
SHACKLE
SHADE
ACTION
SHADOW
TIME
SHADOW
SHAFT
TYPE
SHAG
APPEARANCE
SHAKE
ACTION
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
SHALE
SHALLOW
STATE
SHAMBLES
SHAME
APPEARANCE
STATE
NOT
SHANK
SHAPE
ACTION
APPEARANCE
NOT
SHARD
STATE
SHARE
PEOPLE
SHARK
SHARPEN
APPEARANCE
PART OF BODY
STATE
SHATTER
SHAVE
SHE [noun]
TYPE
SHEAF
SHEAR
ACTION
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
SHEATH
ACTION
STATE
NOT
SHEAVED
SHED
ACTION
SHEED
SHEEN
SHEEP
ACTION
APPEARANCE
BUILDING
OBJECT
PART OF BODY
PEOPLE
SHEER
SHEET
PEOPLE
TYPE
SHELF
SHELL
ACTION
TYPE
SHELTER
STATE
SHELVING
SHENT
SHEPHERD(ESS)
SHERIFF
SHERRIS
SHIELD
STATE
SHIFT
FAST
SHILLING
SHIN
SHINE
APPEARANCE
COSMOS
INTENSITY
STATE
SHIP
ACTION
CLOTHING
EVENT
PEOPLE
PLACE
SHIRE
SHIRT
SHIVE
SHIVER
SHOAL
SHOCK
SHOE
DEPTH
OBJECT
PEOPLE
SHOG
SHOON
SHOOT
ACTION
EMOTION
OBJECT
PART OF BODY
PEOPLE
STATE
SHOP
SHORE
SHORN
SHORT
AMOUNT
PART OF BODY
STATE
SHOUGH
SHOULDER
EQUIPMENT
PART OF BODY
PEOPLE
STATE
SHOUT
NOT
SHOVE
GAME
SHOVEL
GAME
OBJECT
SHOW
BEINGS
FREQUENCY
PLACE
SCENE
TIME
NOT
SHOWER
ACTION
SHRED
SHREW
ACTION
SHRIEK
TIME
SHRIEVE
SHRIFT
SHRILL
VOICE
SHRIMP
SHRINE
ACTION
SHRINK
STATE
NOT
SHRIVE
PEOPLE
SHRIVEL
SHROUD
SHROVETIDE
SHRUB
NOT
SHRUG
SHRUNK
SHUDDER
SHUFFLE
SHUN
STATE
NOT
SHUT
TIME
SHUTTLE
SHY
SIB
SIBYL
SICK
MIND
PART OF BODY
STATE
TYPE
SICKLE
PEOPLE
SICLE
SIDE
ACTION
CLOTHING
DIRECTION
PART OF BODY
PLACE
SIEGE
ACTION
INTENSITY
SIEVE
SIFT
NOT
SIGH
SIGHT
BAD
GOOD
INTENSITY
OBJECT
PART OF BODY
PEOPLE
TIME
NOT
SIGN
EVENT
OBJECT
PEOPLE
PLACE
SIGNAL
SIGNET
SIGNIEUR
SIGNIFY
SIGNIOR
SIGNOR
GODS
SIGNORY
SILENCE
SILK
ANIMAL
CLOTHING
PEOPLE
TYPE
SILLY
ACTION
EMOTION
SILVER
ACTION
APPEARANCE
INTENSITY
SPEECH
SIMILE
SIMONY
SIMPERING
SIMPLE
LAW
SPEECH
SIMULAR
SIN
PEOPLE
STATE
SINCE
INTENSITY
SINCERE
SINEW
ACTION
INTENSITY
NOT
SING
PEOPLE
PRODUCT
SINGE
SINGER
SINGLE
FOOTWEAR
SINISTER [bad]
SINISTER [left]
SINK
ACTION
APPEARANCE
DANCE
SINNER
SIP
SIR
ADDRESS
SIRE
SIREN
SIRRAH
SISTER
SIT
SITHENCE
SITUATION
SIX
MONEY
STATE
SIZE
STATE
SKAINS-MATE
SKAMBLE
SKEIN
SKIFF
SKILL
ACTION
INTENSITY
NOT
SKILLET
SKIM
SKIMBLE
SKIN
ANIMAL
CLOTHING
PEOPLE
SKINNY
SKIP
ACTION
PEOPLE
SKIRMISH
SKIRR
SKIRT
TYPE
SKITTISH
SKULK
SKULL
SKY
DIRECTION
PLACE
SLAB
SLACK
SLAIN
SLAKE
SLANDER
PEOPLE
SLASH
SLAUGHTER
PEOPLE
PLACE
TYPE
SLAVE
TYPE
SLAVER
SLAY
SLEAVE
TYPE
SLEDDED
SLEDED
SLEEK
PART OF BODY
SLEEP
PEOPLE
STATE
TIME
SLEEVE
MUSIC
TYPE
NOT
SLEIDED
SLEIGHT
SLENDER
SLICE
SLICKLY
SLID
SLIDE
SLIGHT [attitude]
SLIGHT [oath]
SLILY
SLIME
SLING
SLINK
SLIP
ACTION
NOT
SLIPSHOD
SLISH
SLIT
SLIVER
SLOBBERY
SLOP
SLOPE
SLOTH
SLOUGH
SLOVENLY
SLOW
ACTI0N
PART OF BODY
SLUBBER
INTENSITY
SLUG
PEOPLE
SLUICE
SLUMBER
SLUT
SLY
SMALL
STATE
SMART
SMATCH
SMATTER
SMEAR
INTENSITY
SMELL
STATE
NOT
SMILE
AMOUNT
SMIRCH
ACTION
NOT
SMITE
SMITH
TYPE
SMOCK
PLANT
SMOKE
SMOOTH
PART OF BODY
SPEECH
SMOTHER
SMUG
SMUTCH
SNAFFLE
SNAIL
SLOW
SNAKE
SNAP
PEOPLE
SNARE
INTENSITY
SNARL
SNATCH
PEOPLE
SNEAK
PEOPLE
SNEAP
SNECK
SNIP
CLOTHING
SNIPE
SNORE
SNORT
SNOUT
APPEARANCE
SNOW
COLOUR
INTENSITY
OBJECT
TYPE
SNUFF
ACTION
SOAK
SOAR
INTENSITY
SOB
SOBER
EMOTION
STATE
TIME
SOCIABLE
NOT
SOCIETY
SOCKS
SOD
SODDEN
INTENSITY
MIND
SOEVER
SOFT
MIND
STATE
SOIL
NOT
SOJOURN
PEOPLE
SOL
SOLACE
SOLDER
SOLDIER
PEOPLE
SOLE [foot]
TYPE
SOLE [only]
SOLEMN
SOLICIT
PEOPLE
TIME
NOT
SOLID
SOLIDARE
SOLITARY
SOMEBODY
SOMEONE
SOMETHING
SOMETIME(S)
SOMEVER
SOMEWHAT
SOMEWHERE
SOMEWHITHER
SON
TYPE
SONANCE
SONG
SONNET
SONTIES
SOON
ACTION
MIND
TIME
SOOTH
PEOPLE
SPEECH
STATE
SOOTHE
PEOPLE
SOOTY
SOP
PEOPLE
SOPHISTER
SOPHISTICATED
PEOPLE
SORCERY
PEOPLE
SORE
INTENSITY
PART OF BODY
STATE
TYPE
SOREL
SORROW
INTENSITY
STATE
SORRY
SORT
BAD
STATE
NOT
SOT
STATE
SOUL
ACTION
EMOTION
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
SOUND
BAD
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
NOT
SOUR
PART OF BODY
STATE
SOURCE
SOUSE
SOUTH
DIRECTION
WEATHER
SOVEREIGN
SOW [animal]
PART OF BODY
SOW [bar]
SOW [seed]
SOWL
SPACE
SPADE
SPAN
GAME
SPANGLE
SPANIEL
TYPE
SPARE
NOT
SPARK
SPARROW
TYPE
SPAVIN
SPAWN
SPEAK
ACTION
BAD
GOOD
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
NOT
SPEAR
PLANT
TYPE
SPECIAL
SPECIFY
SPECIOUSLY
SPECTACLE
SPECTATORS
SPECULATION
SPEECH
SPEED
ACTION
INTENSITY
SPELL
STATE
SPEND
PEOPLE
STATE
TIME
SPERM
SPHERE
NOT
SPHINX
SPICE
ACTION
SPIDER
SPIGOT
SPILL
SPILTH
SPIN
INSECT
PEOPLE
SPINE
SPINNER
SPINSTER
SPIRE
SPIRIT
BAD
EMOTION
GOOD
NOT
SPIRT
SPIT [cook]
SPIT [mouth]
SPITAL
SPITE
DESPITE
SPLAY
SPLEEN
SPLEET
SPLENDOUR
SPLENITIVE
SPLINTER
SPLIT
SPOIL
ACTION
PEOPLE
SPOKESMAN
SPONGE
ACTION
SPOON
FOOD
SPORT
ACTION
INTENSITY
PLACE
SPOT
APPEARANCE
STATE
NOT
SPOUSE
ACTION
SPOUT
SPRAG
SPRAT
SPRAWL
SPRAY
SPREAD
STATE
SPRIG
SPRIGHT
MIND
SPRING
DANCE
DISEASE
PEOPLE
STATE
TIME
SPRINGE
SPRINGHALT
SPRINGTIME
SPRINKLE
SPRITE
SPROUT
SPRUCE
SPUR
PEOPLE
SPURN
SPY
PEOPLE
SQUABBLE
SQUADRON
SQUANDER
SQUARE
PEOPLE
NOT
SQUASH
SQUEAK
SQUEAL
SQUEEZE
SQUENY
SQUIRE
TYPE
SQUIRREL
STAB
STABLE [building]
STABLE [steady]
NOT
STABLISH
STAFF
PEOPLE
TYPE
STAG
STAGE
STAGGER
STAID
NOT
STAIN
INTENSITY
STATE
TYPE
NOT
STAIR
DIRECTION
STATE
STAKE
ACTION
STALE
STALK
ANIMAL
PLANT
STALL
OBJECT
TIME
STALLION
STAMMER
STAMP
STANCH
STAND
ACTION
DIRECTION
EXTRA
INTENSITY
OBJECT
PEOPLE
STATE
STANDARD
STANIEL
STANZE
STANZO
STAPLE
STAR
BAD
BIRTH
LAW
PEOPLE
SCENE
TYPE
STARE
APPEARANCE
INTENSITY
STATE
STARK
STARLIGHT
STARLING
STARRY
START
ACTION
PEOPLE
PLACE
STARTLE
STARVE
PEOPLE
STATE
STATE
ACTION
IMAGE
OBJECT
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
STATION
STATUE
IMAGE
STATURE
STATUTE
CLOTHING
STAUNCH
NOT
STAY
INTENSITY
STEAD
EXTRA
STATE
NOT
STEAL
PEOPLE
STATE
STEAM
STEED
STEEL
INTENSITY
STEEP
STATE
STEEPLE
STEER [animal]
STEER [direction]
STELLED
STEM [plant[
STEM [ship]
STEM [stop]
EXTRA
STENCH
STEP
ACTION
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
STERILE
STERLING
STERN [look]
STERN [ship]
STEW [food]
STEWARD
STEWS [place]
STICK
ACTION
OBJECT
STATE
STICKLER
STIFF
STATE
STIFLE
STIGMATIC
STILE
STILL [quiet]
STATE
STILL [time]
ACTIOM
APPEARANCE
EMOTION
NOISE
PERIOD
STATE
STILLITORY
STING
INSECT
NOT
STINK
INTENSITY
PLANT
STINT
STIR
ACTION
EMOTION
PEOPLE
STIRRUP
STITCH
STITHY
STOCCADO
STOCCATA
STOCK
CLOTHING
FISH
OBJECT
PEOPLE
STATE
STOCKFISH
STOCKING
STOLE [clothing]
STOMACH
CLOTHING
STATE
STONE
OBJECT
PEOPLE
STATE
TYPE
WEATHER
STOOL
GAME
PLANT
TYPE
STOOP
NOT
STOP
STATE
STORE
ACTION
BUILDING
STORM
ACTION
INTENSITY
STORY
STOUP
STOUT
STATE
STOVER
STOW
ACTION
STRAGGLE
PEOPLE
STRAIGHT
APPEARANCE
STRAIN
STRAIT
STRAND
STRANGE
ACTION
PEOPLE
STATE
STRANGLE
PEOPLE
STATE
STRAPPADO
STRATAGEM
STRAW
COLOUR
PLANT
TYPE
STRAY
STREAK
STREAM
OBJECT
STREET
STRENGTH
STRETCH
ACTION
APPEARANCE
STATE
TIME
STREW
ACTION
PEOPLE
STRICT
STRIDE
ACTION
STRIFE
STRIKE [hit]
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
PART OF BODY
STRIKE [measure]
STRING
OBJECT
PART OF BODY
NOT
STRIP
INTENSITY
STRIPE
STRIPLING
STRIVE
STROKE
ACTION
STROND
STRONG
ACTION
PART OF BODY
SHIP
STATE
NOT
STROSSERS
STRUGGLE
STRUMPET
STRUT
STUBBLE
PLACE
STUBBORN
STATE
STUCK-IN
STUD
STUDY
PEOPLE
RELATIONSHIP
STUFF
NOT
STUMBLE
EVENT
STUMP
STUPEFY
STUPID
STURDY
STY
STYLE
STYX
SUB-CONTRACT
SUBDUE
INTENSITY
SUBJECT
ACTION
SUBMERGE
SUBMIT
SUBORN
SUBSCRIBE
SUBSEQUENT
SUBSIDY
SUBSIST
SUBSTANCE
NOT
SUBSTITUTE
SUBSTRACTOR
SUBTLE
INTENSITY
MIND
STATE
SUBURBS
SUBVERT
SUCCEED
SUCCOUR
SUCHLIKE
SUCK
ACTION
ANIMAL
PEOPLE
PLACE
PLANT
PLACE
STATE
SUDDEN
SUE
SUFFER
PEOPLE
SUFFICE
NOT
SUFFOCATE
SUFFRAGE
SUGAR
PEOPLE
SUGGEST
STATE
SUING
SUIT [clothing]
AMOUNT
TYPE
SUIT [request]
EMOTION
PEOPLE
NOT
SULLEN
SULLY
NOT
SULPHUR
SULTAN
SULTRY
SUM
SUMMER
ACTION
STATE
TIME
SUMMIT
SUMMON
PEOPLE
SUMPTER
SUMPTUOUS
SUN
APPEARANCE
HEAT
STATE
TIME
NOT
SUNDAY
SUNDER
SUNKEN
SUP
SUPER-DAINTY
SUPERFICIAL
SUPERFLUOUS
SUPERFLUX
SUPERIOR
SUPERNAL
SUPERNATURAL
SUPERPRAISE
SUPERSCRIPT
SUPER-SERVICEABLE
SUPERSTITION
SUPER-SUBTLE
SUPERVISE
PEOPLE
SUPPER
STATE
TIME
SUPPLANT
SUPPLE
SUPPLIANCE
SUPPLICANT
SUPPLY
PEOPLE
SUPPORT
PEOPLE
NOT
SUPPOSE
TIME
SUPPRESS
NOT
SUPREME
RELATIONSHIP
SURANCE
SURCEASE
SURE
STATE
NOT
SURFEIT
ACTION
PEOPLE
STATE
NOT
SURGE
SURGERY
PEOPLE
SURLY
SURMISE
TIME
SURMOUNT
SURNAME
SURPASS
SURPLICE
SURPLUS
SURPRISE
STATE
SUR-REINED
SURRENDER
SURROUND
SURVEY
EXTRA
PEOPLE
SURVIVE
PEOPLE
SUSPECT
NOT
SUSPEND
SUSPICION
SUSPIRE
SUSTAIN
SUTLER
SWABBER
SWADDLING
SWAGGER
APPEARANCE
PEOPLE
SWAIN
SWALLOW [bird]
SWALLOW [mouth]
STATE
SWAN
STATE
SWARM
ACTION
SWART
SWASHING
PEOPLE
SWATHE [sweep]
SWATHE [wrap]
ACTION
CLOTHING
SWAY
INTENSITY
NOT
SWEAR
INTENSITY
PEOPLE
STATE
TRUTH
NOT
SWEAT
SWEEP
PEOPLE
SWEET
APPEARANCE
FOOD
INTENSITY
MIND
MUSIC
PEOPLE
SMELL
SPEECH
TASTE
SWELL
AMOUNT
INTENSITY
STATE
TIME
SWELTER
SWERVE
PEOPLE
SWIFT
STATE
SWILL
SWIM
PEOPLE
SWINE
PEOPLE
STATE
SWING
SWINGE
PEOPLE
SWITCH
SWITS
SWOLLEN
SWOON
SWOOP
ACTION
SWORD
EQUIPMENT
PART
PEOPLE
TYPE
SWOUND
SWOUNDS
SYCAMORE
SYLLABLE
SYLLOGISM
SYMBOL
SYMPATHIZE
SYNAGOGUE
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